Having Difficulties Thickening Glutamate Surfactants?
- May 4, 2020
- Posted by: Jolene Seah
- Category: LS, Personal Care
Up to date, thickening glutamate surfactants is the main problem with their application. This puts off formulators from using these surfactants as they cannot achieve the viscosity that they desire.
However, glutamate surfactants remain a popular choice to create green products. They are sulfate-free alternatives and are mild, biodegradable and eco-friendly. Furthermore, they offer superior ease of rinsing and water-
Critical Packing Parameter (CPP)
The Critical packing parameter (CPP) is a theoretical framework for determining the type of aggregation formed by surfactants (i.e. as spherical or cylindrical micelles, or vesicles, or flexible or fixed bilayers.)
- Spherical micelles: CPP < 1/3
- Cylindrical micelles: 1/3 < CPP < ½
- Bilayer: CPP ~ 1
Why are glutamate surfactants difficult to thicken?
- These surfactants are unique in their structure. It has a big hydrophilic head with two carboxylate radical and relatively small hydrophobic tail.
- Their big hydrophilic heads prevent the increase of packing parameter.
- Easy to form spherical micelle, not rod like micelles, worm-like micelles etc.
Spherical micelles do not give increased viscosity, however, when the micelles have an elongated configuration, for instance are rod-shaped or worm-shaped, they become entangled with one another thereby increasing the viscosity of the fluid (Crews and Huang, 2010).
|Surfactant Chassis||Primary Surfactant||Secondary Surfactant||Primary Thickener||Secondary Thickener|
|Low surfactant chassis (<7% actives)||CAPB (5-6% actives)||AAS or APG (1-2% actives)||TF80 – Transparent Xanthan Gum Food Grade 80 Mesh (q.s.)||Guarguat NT 500KC Guar hydroxypropyltrimonium chloride (0.1-0.5% w/w)|
|Low surfactant chassis (<7% actives)||AAS or APG (5-6% actives)||CAPB (1-2% actives)||TF80 (q.s.)||Guarguat NT 500KC (0.1-0.5% w/w)|
|Mid-to-high surfactant chassis (>10% actives)||CAPB (9-12% actives)||AAS or APG (2-3% actives)||Sodium chloride (q.s.)||Guarguat NT 500KC (0.1-0.5% w/w)|
|Mid-to-high surfactant chassis (>10% actives)||AAS or APG (9-12% actives)||CAPB (2-3% actives)||SINOPOL 8KDS PEG-150 distearate or TF80 (q.s.)||Guarguat NT 500KC (0.1-0.5% w/w)|
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