Black Ginseng, Richer in Ginsenoside Compared to Red Ginseng

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Korean ginseng has been long known for its tonic and medicinal properties, especially in East Asia. There are three main types of ginsengs; White, Red, and Black.

What is the difference between those three?

The difference between white (fresh), red, and black ginseng is in their color and ginsenoside content, which is impacted by the repeated process of steaming and drying. White ginseng is produced by dehydration process at low temperature. Red ginseng, that has steamed and dried 1-2 times, will last longer and has higher certain ginsenoside content. Black ginseng, on the other hand, is produced through repeated process of steaming and drying, to maximize the benefits of this plant’s root.
three-types-of-ginseng
Three types of ginseng based on its color

What Is Ginsenoside in Ginseng?

Ginsenoside is the major constituent of ginseng, the source of benefits that ginseng’s popular for. It is a class of natural product steroid glycosides and triterpene saponins. Ginsenoside could be isolated from various parts of the plant, though typically from the roots, and it can be purified by column chromatography. The compound is known to have unique biological activity and medicinal value. There are several types of ginsenosides, in which each of them has specific biological function. The functions of each ginsenoside are listed as below:
  • Rg1 Ginsenoside For cognitive, memory, and learning
  • Re Ginsenoside For anti-obesity
  • Rb1 Ginsenoside For cognitive, memory, and learning
  • Rb2 Ginsenoside For anti-diabetic and anti-obesity
  • Rb3 Ginsenoside For anti-diabetic
  • Rd Ginsenoside For anti-diabetic and anti-obesity
  • Rg3 (S) Ginsenoside For cognitive, memory, and learning, and anti-hair loss
  • Rg3 (R) Ginsenoside For cognitive, memory, and learning, and anti-hair loss
  • Rk1 Ginsenoside For cognitive, memory, and learning
  • Rg5 Ginsenoside For cognitive, memory, and learning

Black Ginseng Production

The traditional way to produce black ginseng is by repeated process of steaming and drying, from 3-9 times process until the ginseng obtains the desired color and ginsenoside content. Generally, more three times of steaming and drying is needed to produce black ginseng. However, as technology advances, a method of high-pressure processing (HPP) to produce black ginseng extract emerged. Hanbit High-Pressure Processing (HPP) is a patented production process to produce black ginseng extract.

hpp process
The working process of High Pressure Processing (HPP)

The patented process of high-pressure processing is claimed to increase the yield of ginsenoside in the product compared to traditional method. The HPP technology is using non-heating treatment technique, while killing microbial and activate/inactivate certain enzyme, producing less bitter black ginseng extract and allows application as a final products type.

Ginsenoside Content of Black Ginseng Extract Produced by High Pressure Processing (HPP)

black-ginseng-ginsenoside-content
Content analysis of general black ginseng extract compared to Hanbit HPP black ginseng extract
A comparison analysis is conducted to test ginsenoside content in general black ginseng extract compared to Hanbit HPP Ginseng Extract. The results showed that there is significant increase up to 48.1% in total ginsenoside content when black ginseng is processed by HPP compared to traditional method. Meanwhile, ginsenoside Rg 1 + Rb 1 + Rg3 (S) content increased by 59.5%, making it suitable for consumption and also as personal care ingredients. Compared to red ginseng, Hanbit HPP Black Ginseng has 2-10 times higher in ginsenosides.

Benefit of Black Ginseng Extract

1. Black Ginseng for Personal Care

Black ginseng extract is used as personal care ingredients due to its potent benefit and properties for the skin thanks to the richer ginsenoside content compared to fresh and red ginseng. Moreover, black ginseng supports sustainable beauty trends so its safety is also guaranteed.

Hanbit HPP Black Ginseng Anti Oxidation

Anti-oxidation

Based on the test conducted by P&K Skin Research Center, Hanbit HPP Black Ginseng Extract showed significant DPPH radical scavenging activity from 12.10% to 92.94% in the concentration range of 40 ppm to 1250 ppm (IC50=  0.04%). Therefore, Hanbit HPP Black Ginseng Extract is confirmed as a raw material with antioxidant activity
Hanbit HPP Black Ginseng Anti Inflammation

Anti-inflammation

The ability of Hanbit HPP Black Ginseng Extract to inhibit the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, when treated at a concentration of 0.0001% to 0.005%, the excess amount of Interleukine-6 (IL-6) was reduced by 9.54% to 46.02%.

The test confirmed that Hanbit HPP Black Ginseng Extract has anti-inflammatory effect.

HPP-Black-Ginseng-Anti-Wrinkle

Anti-wrinkle

When Hanbit HPP Black Ginseng Extract was treated at a concentration of 0.0005 / 5~0.0050%, it was found that the amount of MMP 1 excessively generated by UVB was significantly reduced by 29.19% to 31.33%.

It could be confirmed that Hanbit HPP Black Ginseng Extract has anti-wrinkle effect.

2. Black Ginseng for Health Supplement

Through HPP technology, Hanbit black ginseng extract as food supplement is:

  • 18% less bitter
  • 61% sweeter
  • 79% better ginsenoside absorption by the body
  • Better Aftertaste

In addition, ginsenoside content in black ginseng extract also improves cognitive function, memory, learning, and has other health benefits as listed above.

If you are looking for black ginseng extract for your product, Hanbit HPP Black Ginseng Extract is the right choice! Contact us at sales@mahachem.com for further information regarding the product and quotation.

References:

  1. Lee, S. A., Jo, H. K., Im, B. O., Kim. S. G., Whang, W. K. and Ko, S. K.(2012) Changes in the contents of prosapogenin in the red ginseng (Panax ginseng) depending on steaming batches. J. Ginseng Res. 36: 102-106
  2. Kang, K. S., Kim, H. Y., Baek, S. H., Yoo, H. H., Park, J. H. and Yokozawa, T. (2007) Study on the hydroxyl radical scavenging activity changes of ginseng and ginsenoside-Rb2 by heat processing. Biol. Pharm. Bull. 30: 724-728.
  3. Kang, K. S., Woo, J. H. and Kim, A. J. (2013) The effects of Korean ginseng on memory loss in a rat models. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 42: 1190-1196.
  4. Kim, E. K., Lee, J. H., Cho, S. H., Shen, G. N., Jin, L. G., Myung, C. S., Oh, H. J., Kim, D. H., Yun, J. D., Roh, S. S., Park, Y. J., Seo, Y. B. and Song, G. Y. (2008) Preparation of black Panax ginseng by new methods and its antitumor activity. Kor. J. Herbology 23: 85-92.
  5. Song, G. Y., Chung, K. J., Shin, Y. J., Lee, G. W., Lee, S. Y. and Seo, Y. B. (2011) Study on antiangiogenic effect of black ginseng radix. Kor. J. Herbology 26: 83-90.
  6. Lee, M. R., Yun, B. S., In, O. H. and Sung, C. K. (2011) Comparative study of Korean white, red, and black ginseng extract on cholinesterase inhibitory activity and cholinergic function. J. Ginseng Res. 35: 421-428.
  7. Park, H. J., Shim, H. S., Kim, K. S. and Shim, I. (2011) The protective effect of back ginseng against transient focal ischemia-induced neuronal damage in rats. Korean J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 15: 333-338.
  8. Bao, H. Y., Zhang, J., Yeo, S. J., Myung, C. S., Kim, H. M., Kim, J. M., Park, J. H., Cho, J. and Kang. J. S. (2005) Memory enhancing and neuroprotective effects of selected ginsenosides. Arch. Pharm. Res. 28: 335-342 Flavor Hanbit & Fragrance References
  9. Kim, S. N. and Kang, S. J. (2009) Effects of black ginseng (9times-steaming ginseng) on hypoglycemic action and changes in the composition of ginsenosides on the steaming process. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 41: 77-81.
  10. Kim, A. J., Yoo, H. S. and Kang, S. J. (2012) Ameliorative effect of black ginseng on diabetic complications in C57BLKS/J-db/db Mice. Korean J. Food Nutr. 25: 99-104.
  11. Song, K. Y., Oh, H. J., Rho, S. S., Seo, Y. B., Park, Y. J. and Myung, C. S. (2006) Effect of black ginseng on body weight and lipid profiles in male rat fed normal diets. Yakhak Hoeji 50: 381-385.
  12. Lee, M. R., Kim, B. C., Kim, R., Oh, H. I., Kim, H. K., Choi, K. J. and Sung, C. K. (2013) Anti-obesity effects of black ginseng extract in high fat diet-fed mice. J. Ginseng Res. 37: 308-314.
  13. Jo, G. S., Cha, H. Y., Ji, H. J., Kang, M. H., Kang, S. J., Ji, J. G., Kim, D. J. and Lee, B. J. (2010) Enhancement of exercise capacity by black ginseng extract in rats. Lab. Anim. Res. 26: 279-286.
  14. Sun, M., Huang, C., Wang, C., Zheng, J., Zhang, P., Xu, Y., Chen, H. and Shen, W. (2013) Ginsenoside Rg3 improves cardiac mitochondrial population quality: mimetic exercise training. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 441: 169-174

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